Reported Speech

4 Jun

Reported Speech

 

Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan struktur kalimat, tensis, pronoun (kata ganti orang), keterangan waktu dan tempat (Adverbs of time and place).


Sebelum melangkah jauh ke sub-pembahasan tersebut di atas, alangkah baiknya ada juga mengerti tentang apa yang dimaksud Reporting Speech dan Reported Speech.


Reporting Speech adalah bagian dalam kalimat direct speech yang di tandai oleh tanda petik (“) dan di akhiri oleh tanda petik (“).

  • He said, “I have a present for you in my bag.”
  • He asked me, “why do you come late.”

Sedangkan Reported Speech adalah baigan awal dari kalimat direct speech.

  • He said, “I have a present for you in my bag.”
  • He asked me, “why do you come late.”

Untuk itu, pada artikel ini penulis sengaja membagi beberpa sub-penjelasan mengenai direct dan indirect speech berdasakan perubahan-perbuahan di atas.

1. Perubahan Stuktur kalimat

 Jika kita lihat pada kalimat direct speech, terdapat ciri-ciri yang identik yaitu terdapat tanda petik (“). Tada petik tersebut merupakan cara yang sering digunakan untuk membedakan mana yang direct atau yang indirect.

 Ketika klimat direct speech tersebut dirubah menjadi kalimat indirect speech, tanda petik tersebut pun dihilangkan atau digantikan dengan kata “that” atau “to” (untuk kalimat perintah). Misalnya:

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

He said, I have a present for you in my bag.

He said that he had a present for me in his bag.

02

He asked me, why do you come late.

He asked me why I came late.

03

He orderd me, don’t bring a bag.

He ordered me to didn’t bring a bag.

 

Perubahan struktur kalimat juga terjadi jika pada direct speech menggunakan kalimat tanya, maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat afirmatif (berita).

 

Untuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan kalimat tanya “yes-no question” maka akan dirubah menjadi if/whether. Contohnya:

 

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

They asked me, “Do you want to join us to play football?”

They asked me if/whether I want to join them to play football.

02

He asked me, “Does she want to mary me?”

He asked me if/whether she wants to mary her.

 

Untuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan 5W1H question (Why, Who, What, When, WHere, How), maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat afirmatif dengan cara sebagai berikut:

 

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

He asked me, “why do you come late?”

He asked me why you came late.

02

He asked me, “what does she eat?”

He asked me what she ate.

03

He asked me, “when did you come?”

He asked me when I came.

04

He asked me, “who are you?”

He asked me who I was.

05

He asked me, “who is she?”

He asked me who she was.

 2. Perubahan Tensis (Tenses)

Seperti yang dijelaskan dimuka, perbuahan dari direct ke indirect juga mempengaruhi tensis yang digunakan. Kebanyakan siswa sulit memahami perubahan yang satu ini. Untuk itu, penulis sengaja membuatkan tabel perubahan tensis agar mudah dimengerti.

Di bawah ini adalah tabel Perubahan Tenses dari direct speech ke indirect speech.

 

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

Simple Present

Simple Past

02

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

03

Present Future

Past Future

04

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

05

Present Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

06

Simple Past

Past Perfect

07

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

 Atau bisa lebih dipermudah dengan tabel berikut di bawah ini, yaitu:

 

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

V1 (eat)

V2 (ate)

02

V2 (ate)

Had + V3 (had eaten)

03

Am/is/are

Was/were

04

Do/does

Did

05

Do/does not

Did not

06

Did not

Had not + V3

07

Was/were

Had been

08

Am/is/are + V-ing

Was/were + V-ing

09

Was/were +V-ing

Had been + V-ing

10

Has/have + V3

Had + V3

11

Will/shall/can/may/must

Would/should/could/might/had to

12

Could/might/should/would + V1/be

Could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been

 

3. Perubahan Pronoun

Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di direct speech (kalimat langsung) yang tentunya mempengaruhi perubahan pronoun pada indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung).

  • Kata ganti orang pertama (I dan We) pada reporting speech (lihat penjelasan di awal) berubah sesuai subjek yang ada di reproted speech.

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

He said, ‘I am busy.’

He said that he was busy.

02

She said, ‘I am unwell.’

She said that she was unwell.

03

I said, ‘I will be late.’

I said that I would be late.

04

They said, ‘We will not permit this.’

They said that they would not permit that.

05

We said, ‘We need to buy some clothes.’

We said that we needed to buy some clothes.

  • Kata ganti orang kedua (You) di reporting speech pada direct speech berubah sesuai objek pada reported speech.

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

He said to me, ‘You have to come with me.’

He told me that I had to go with him.

02

She said to me, ‘You can go.’

She told me that I could go.

03

She said to him, ‘You can go.’

She told him that he could go.

  • Kata ganti orang ketiga (Hesheit dan they) pada direct speech tidak mengalami perubahan ketika dirubah ke indirect speech.

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

He said, ‘She is a good girl.’

He said that she was a good girl.

02

She said, ‘They have invited us.’

She said that they had invited them.

03

They said, ‘He does not have the necessary qualifications.’

They said that he did not have the necessary qualifications.

4. Perubahan Keterangan waktu dan tempat (Adverbs of time and place)


Tidak cuma itu, dalam perubahan dari direct speech ke indirect speech juga mempengaruhi adverbs khusunya adverb of time (keterangan waktu) dan adverb of place (keterangan tempat). Untuk itu anda wajib memahami tabel di bawah ini.

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

Now

Then

02

To day

That day

03

Tomorrow

The next day
The day after
The following day
A day later

04

Next …

The … after
The following …

05

Last …

The … before
The Previous …

06

… ago

… before
… earlier

07

Yesterday

The day before
The previous day
The preceeding day

08

The day before yesterday

Two day before

09

Here

There

10

This

That

11

These

Those


Di bawah ini adalah contoh-contoh direct dan indirect speech untuk menambah pemahaman mengenai penjelasan di atas.

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

(+)

He said, “I have a present for you in my bag.here

He said that he had a present for me in his bag there.

(-)

He said, “I do not have a present for you in my bag”

 

He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag.

 

(?)

He asked, “Do I have a present for you in my bag?”

He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag.

(?)

He asked me, “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag?

 He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag.

(!)


He ordered/commanded me, “Bring my bag here now!”


He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then.

(!)

He ordered me, “Don’t bring your bag here!”

He ordered me not to bring my bag there.

SOAL REPORTED SPEECH

1. The woman says to him: “you play the piano well.”
The girl says to him that ………….
A. you play the piano well.
B. he play the piano well
C. he plays the piano well
D. he played the piano well
E. you played the piano well

2. “Did he leave a message for me?”
“yes, he said………. tonight”.
A. he called you
B. he would call him
C. you called her
D. he would call you
E. I would call you

3. “You mustn’t forget what I told you.”
She told me ………..
A. that I hadn’t to forget what she had told me

B. that I didn’t have to forget what I had told her.
C. that I mustn’t have forgotten what I told you.
D. that I didn’t have to forget what she had told me
E. that I was not to forget what she had told me.sing so loudly

4. Tony said to me: “Why does she sing so loudly?”
A. Tony said to me why does she sing so loudly
B. Tony asked me why did she sing so loudly.
C. Tony asked why does she sing so loudly
D. Tony asked me why she sang so loudly
E. Tony asked me why she did sing so loudly

5. “How many pieces of bread can you eat?” She said
A. She said how many pieces of bread I can eat
B. She wanted to know how many pieces of bread you cculd eat
C. She asked how could I eat a lot of bread
D. She asked how many pieces of bread I could eat

E. She asked me how many pieces of bread I can eat

6) Richard:”I am going to ride a skateboard.”
Richard said to me that he was going to ride a skateboard.

7) Stephen and Claire:”We have cleaned the windows.”
Stephen and Claire told me that they had cleaned the windows.

8) Charles:”I didn’t have time to do my homework.”
Charles remarked that he hadn’t had time to do his homework.

9) Mrs Jones:”My mother will be 50 years old.”
Mrs Jones told me that her mother would be 50 years old.

10) Jean:”The boss must sign the letter.”
Jean said that the boss had to sign the letter.

Sumber :

http://www.belajarbahasainggris.us/2012/04/penjelasan-direct-dan-indirect-speech.html

http://misriyantosma6.wordpress.com/2010/02/24/soal-reported-speech/

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/reported_speech/statements.htm

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s

%d blogger menyukai ini: